If there is a deception being carried out, then there have to be people being deceived, being duped.
If a politician promises something that he or she knows cannot be delivered, and a citizen believes this, then the citizen has been duped.
If a politician promises something thinking they can deliver it, and a citizen believes this, has the citizen been duped?
In the case of the GP boundary issue, I think it is likely there are some politicians who think it is perfectly practical (in which case they are stupid, and not participating themselves in a deception) and are unaware of the unintended consequences; if they promise their constituent to deliver this is the citizen being duped?
A concrete case: on 30 December 2011 (is there a significance in such a date) the Department of Health launched the ‘Choose Your GP’ pilot. Almost immediately a number of articles appeared in the online press (Telegraph, Express, Oxford Times, and others). These ‘articles’ were essentially all the same, they all repeated what the DOH ‘Media Centre’ told them. They all more or less lifted the text from the DOH webpage. The articles did not say ‘All this content is from the Department of Health as they are giving it out. I cannot guarantee the veracity or reasonableness of the content.’ Nor did any of the articles analyse what was being offered, ‘promised’. They just presented it. A citizen reading the article could be excused for thinking the content, the promises, were reasonable and achievable.
So in this case, the journalist is being duped, and in turn, unwittingly, is duping the public.
(I checked this with one of the journalists, and offered some additional information which critiqued the content of the DOH webpage; the journalist said that he/she had had to rely wholly on the DOH content; and had he/she been aware of what I had told him/her, he/she would have written a different story. There may be more on this in the future).
Two examples (there are at least 5 others):